Below is a several year old interview with Kym L. Pasqualini appearing on tru TV Crime Library pointing out how race, gender, age, and even socioeconomic status affects the response to missing person cases. To read Damsels in Distress click on the link below.
Advancements in the national response to missing person cases
Working eighteen years in the field of missing persons and homicide victims, I have witnessed significant advancements, yet there are still many necessary improvements needed to ensure all missing persons have equality of services and fairness in media.
Desperately needed is increased federal and state funding to improve and expand direct support services for families of the missing and training for law enforcement. Also crucial are efforts to pass state and possibly even federal legislation to effect universal protocol across jurisdictions requiring proper response and effective handling of missing and unidentified person investigations by law enforcement agencies throughout the country.
Recently, several states have passed laws requiring law enforcement to immediately accept a report of a missing adult and enter the descriptive data into federal databases. In addition, significant advances in technology utilizing DNA obtained from relatives of missing persons are now solving cases that are decades old and providing families with answers.
As founder of the National Center for Missing Adults, I had the honor of serving on several task forces with experts in the field of missing persons, forensics, anthropology and all levels of local, state, and federal law enforcement.
In 2005, President’s DNA Initiative announced “Advancing Justice through DNA Technology”. As the research, development and evaluation arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ), the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) tasked the groups with presenting the national scope of the problem and formulating recommendations utilizing existing and advanced technology to improve the response to missing person and unidentified cases.
One such recommendation to improve identification methods of missing and unidentified was the development of DNA collection kits. At the University of North Texas Center for Human Identification(UNTCHI), medical examiners, coroners, and law enforcement agencies throughout the country are now provided DNA collection kits to submit Direct Reference Samples (DRS) obtained directly from the victim or personal items belonging to the victim for analysis. In addition, law enforcement agencies may submit a DNA cheek swab obtained from a family member of a missing person referred to as a Family Reference Sample (FRS). Once processed and analyzed at the Center for Human Identification, DNA profiles are uploaded to the Federal Bureau of Investigation Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) where they are cross-referenced for matches.
Time is the enemy in any missing person investigation. With each passing day families of the missing suffer significant trauma caused by ambiguous loss, the “not knowing” the fate of their loved ones. Programs like these have proven successful in expediting identification and providing families with answers.
Introducing One Agency Creating Social Change and Raising Awareness of Missing Minorities
I would like to introduce an organization and acknowledge the tireless efforts of a woman I admire and respect who is working to help missing persons of color and their families by providing resources and tools to respond, search, and cope with the disappearance of a loved one. Derrica Wilson is a veteran official from law enforcement and founder of the Black & Missing Foundation (BAM), a nonprofit 501c3 organization.
BAM provides services to victims, training to law enforcement, and educates minority communities about personal safety. Since 2008, BAM has focused on a segment of the national victim population that has been under-served and continues to make significant contributions to the missing person field.
BAM recently teamed with TVONE to present the all-new television series Find our Missing.
Hollis Jennings is classified as ‘endangered missing’ and vanished from his residence in Charlotte, NC on November 22, 2011. To view additional information about the disappearance of Hollis Jennings and many other missing persons please visit www.blackandmissinginc.com.
Other National Resources
Information sharing is vital to the recovery of missing persons and the identification of unidentified decedents. The National Missing and Unidentified Persons System (NAMUS) is the centralized national repository and resource center that maintains data for missing persons and unidentified decedents throughout the country. NAMUS is a free public database that enables anyone to enter information about a missing or unidentified person, to include a new section for Unclaimed Persons (those identified but unclaimed by next of kin).
The website at www.namus.gov provides numerous resources for the public and families of missing persons such as links to state clearinghouses, advocacy groups, law enforcement agencies, medical examiners, and coroners. It also provides the end-user the ability to print full-color posters and search the database using descriptive information such as gender, race, scars, tattoos, and dental records.
NAMUS also provides free DNA testing, odontology (dental), anthropology, and additional forensic services. National Institute of Justice requires all DNA samples submitted to the Center for Human Identification at University North Texas also entered into NAMUS by law enforcement, medical examiners, and coroners.
National Center for Missing & Exploited Children
The disappearances of children during the late 1970’s and early 1980’s would forever change how law enforcement responded to missing children cases. Etan Patz, only six years old, vanished in 1979, while on his way to school in New York City and was never seen again. Over a two-year period from 1979-1981, approximately twenty-nine African American children and teens were abducted and murdered in Atlanta Georgia. Following these tragedies, six-year-old Adam Walsh vanished in 1981 while at a Florida shopping mall with his mother. Little Adam’s disappearance would become the most recognizable missing child case in US history.
In 1984, the United States Congress passed the Missing Children’s Assistance Act designating the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (NCMEC) as the national clearinghouse and resource center for missing children. In June 1984, during a Whitehouse Ceremony, President Ronald Reagan opened NCMEC and launched the national 24-hour hotline 1-800-THE-LOST (5678).
Funded through the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), NCMEC provides a vast array of services to include assistance and training to local, state, and federal law enforcement and support services to families of missing children. In addition to recovery, training and investigative services, NCMEC introduced the CyberTipline and associated programs focused on prevention and response to child sexual exploitation such as child pornography, child prostitution, and sex-slavery.
Over the years, NCMEC has developed outstanding resources and education programs for families, schools, child-care facilities, and providers to help keep children safe. The NetSmartz program also provides educators and families with information to help keep children safe while using the Internet.
To obtain information and free resources to help keep your children safe, visit www.missingkids.com.
America’s Most Wanted
America’s Most Wanted (AMW) is probably most recognized as the national television show hosted by John Walsh and responsible for apprehending over 1,000 fugitives. John is also one of the most outspoken and well-known missing person advocates in the world. Since AMW’s national debut in 1988, the show has been credited for the recovery of approximately 50 missing children.
When John’s son, Adam Walsh, vanished on July 27, 1981, his life took an unexpected turn and John turned his grief into action. A former hotel marketing executive turned Crime Fighter, John’s tireless efforts were instrumental in the establishment of the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, and he continues to assist other families of missing persons across the country.
Two weeks after his son vanished, Adam’s decapitated body was located in a canal. For 27 years, John and his wife Reve waited for justice. In December 2008, Hollywood (FL) Police Department announced they had identified evidence that drifter, Ottis Toole, an already convicted killer was responsible for Adam’s abduction and murder. Toole had made two admissions he was responsible for Adam’s death and then recanted. Toole died in prison in 1996 and was never convicted for the Adam’s homicide but the Walsh family acknowledged there was a peace at least having an answer. John reminds other families never to give up hope.
In addition to profiling dangerous fugitives, AMW features missing children and adults on the show’s website www.amw.com and regularly features missing person cases on the weekly program now on Lifetime television. Resources for families of missing persons can be located on the website as well as resources for sex trafficking, legislation, and current Amber Alerts.
You can also find resources and stories about child and teen safety, family and community issues, emergency preparedness and much more on the AMW Safety Center website. The website includes a searchable sex offender registry listing photographs, convictions and addresses of sex offenders in your area. The website even provides a section where you can submit questions directly to John. You can visit the website at http://safety.amw.com.
Author – Kym L. Pasqualini
Founder, National Center for Missing Adults
& Social Network Advocate
Missing Persons Advocacy Network
Phone: 800-889-3463 (FIND)